Optimization of Double Hole Composite Plate on the Floater Compartment of Amphibious Aircraft Using Taguchi Method

Abian Nurrohmad(1*), Quincy Antares(2), Awang Rahmadi Nuranto(3), Afid Nugroho(4)

(1) Research Center for Aeronautics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency
(2) Marsekal Suryadarma University
(3) Research Center for Aeronautics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency
(4) Research Center for Aeronautics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency
(*) Corresponding Author


A floater or pontoon is one of the most important components of amphibious aircraft to assist the take-off and landing operation. The inner structure of the floater consists of compartments to carry some payload and to reinforce the structural strength due to water and aerodynamic load that occurred during the aircraft operation. The composite material is chosen instead of metal to reduce the weight of the floater. One of the problems on the composite panel is the existence of some holes due to joint with another part or also to minimize its weight. In this study, the optimization of the composite plate with the existence of a double hole is done using the Taguchi Method. The objective of this optimization is to minimize the stress that happens due to the tensile load. The Finite Element Method is used to calculate the maximum stress and stress distribution on the plate. Tsai-Hill failure criterion is used to make sure that the optimum design does not fail. This optimization considers open hole configuration, the ratio between diameter, and hole distance, as well as the fiber orientation as the control factors. The Taguchi L9 Orthogonal Array is used to make 9 design variations from 3 control factors and 3 levels. This process also considers the thickness of the lamina and material strength as noise factors. The optimization process results in the optimum composite design as follows: 1st double hole configuration (in line with the load direction), the ratio between diameter and hole distance is 0.5, and the fiber direction is [0/90/45/-45]s. The maximum in-plane stress of the optimum design is 39.56 MPa with the Tsai-Hill value is 0.23, so the design does not fail. This optimum configuration of the composite plate can be used to make design considerations for an amphibious aircraft floater compartment.


composite structure, optimization, Taguchi method, finite element method

Full Text:



X. Gao, C. Li, T. Liu, B. Wu, and M. Wang, “Research on wave motion response characteristics of a seaplane,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021, vol. 1985, no. 1. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1985/1/012031.

Y. Lu, T. Xiao, S. Deng, H. Zhi, Z. Zhu, and Z. Lu, “Effects of initial conditions on water landing performance of amphibious aircraft; [着水初始条件对水陆两栖飞机着水性能的影响],” Hangkong Xuebao/Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, vol. 42, no. 7, 2021, doi: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24483.

S. Chinvorarat, “Composite wing structure of light amphibious airplane design, optimization, and experimental testing,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 11, p. e08410, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08410.

K. Yang, Design for Six Sigma : Roadmap to product development, McGraw-Hill , 2nd Edition, no. August. 2016.

S. Rakshe, S. V Nimje, and S. K. Panigrahi, Optimization of adhesively bonded spar-wingskin joints of laminated FRP composites subjected to pull-off load: A critical review. wiley, 2021. doi: 10.1002/9781119846703.ch2.

N. V. S. R. Yellapragada et al., “Application of Taguchi - PCA/GRA Method to Optimize the Wear Behaviour of Polyester/Carbon Fibre Composites,” Revue des Composites et des Materiaux Avances, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 65 – 73, 2023, doi: 10.18280/rcma.330201.

M. Tadesse et al., “Optimization of Tailor-Made Natural- and Synthetic-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy-Based Composites for Lightweight Structural Applications,” Journal of Composites Science, vol. 7, no. 10, 2023, doi: 10.3390/jcs7100443.

A. S. Madival, D. Doreswamy, R. Shetty, N. Naik, and P. R. Gurupur, “Optimization and Prediction of Process Parameters during Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Hybrid Rice Straw and Furcraea foetida Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite,” Journal of Composites Science, vol. 7, no. 5, 2023, doi: 10.3390/jcs7050189.

E. Özaslan, M. A. Güler, A. Yetgin, and B. Acar, “Stress analysis and strength prediction of composite laminates with two interacting holes,” Composite Structures, vol. 221, no. April, p. 110869, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.04.041.

E. Özaslan, B. Acar, and M. A. Güler, “Experimental and numerical investigation of stress concentration and strength prediction of carbon/epoxy composites,” Procedia Structural Integrity, vol. 13, pp. 535–541, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.prostr.2018.12.088.

Z. Salleh, M. N. Berhan, K. M. Hyie, Y. M. Taib, A. Kalam, and N. R. N. Roselina, “Open hole tensile properties of Kenaf composite and Kenaf/fibreglass hybrid composite laminates,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 68, pp. 399–404, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.12.198.

A. Nasir, A. I. Azmi, and A. N. M. Khalil, “ScienceDirect Parametric study on the residual tensile strength of flax natural fibre composites after drilling operation,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 2, pp. 97–101, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.017.

C. Pandivelan, A. K. Jeevanantham, and C. Sathiyanarayanan, “Optimization Study on Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal AA5052 for Variable Wall Angle using CNC Milling Machine,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 12832–12836, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2018.02.267.

A. Nurrohmad, V. A. Pratama, R. Fitriansyah, and A. B. Utama, “Application of Taguchi Robust Design Method for Optimization of Composite Plate With Open Hole on LSU-05 NG,” Siptekgan XXIII, pp. 1–10, 2019, doi: 10.30536/p.siptekgan.2019.v23.01.

T. Le-Manh and J. Lee, “Stacking sequence optimization for maximum strengths of laminated composite plates using genetic algorithm and isogeometric analysis,” Composite Structures, vol. 116, pp. 357–363, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.05.011.

B. Sampath, N. Naveenkumar, P. Sampathkumar, P. Silambarasan, A. Venkadesh, and M. Sakthivel, “Experimental comparative study of banana fiber composite with glass fiber composite material using Taguchi method,” in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2021, vol. 49, pp. 1475 – 1480. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.07.232.

S. Kumar, L. Prasad, V. K. Patel, A. Kumain, and A. Yadav, “Experimental and numerical study on physico-mechanical properties and Taguchi’s designed abrasive wear behavior of hemp/nettle-polyester hybrid composite,” Polymer Composites, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 6912 – 6927, 2021, doi: 10.1002/pc.26350.

A. Al-Fatlawi, K. Jármai, and G. Kovács, “Optimal design of a lightweight composite sandwich plate used for airplane containers,” Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 611 – 612, 2021, doi: 10.12989/sem.2021.78.5.611.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25104/wa.v49i2.520.87-95

Article metrics

Abstract views : 364 | views : 135


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Sinta Science and Technology IndexGoogle ScholarDirectory of Open Access JournalIndonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD)ROAD: the Directory of Open Access scholarly ResourcesPKP IndexGarudaDimensionsDimensions

Copyright of Warta Ardhia (e-ISSN:2528-4045, p-ISSN:0215-9066) Sekretariat Jurnal Transportasi Udara, Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur No. 5 A Jakarta Pusat 10110. Tlp. (021) 34832944, Fax. (021) 34832968. Email:litbang_udara@yahoo.co.id; warta.ardhia@gmail.com.

    Creative Commons License 
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  Analytics View My Stats